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一挺被称为"老黄牛"的马克沁重机枪

这是一挺在抗日战争时期,由山东抗日武装在蓬莱缴获并历经战火、屡建战功的老式的马克沁重机枪。它有一个"老黄牛"的美名。 马克沁重机枪,是英籍美国人H·S·Maxim(马克沁)于1883年发明的。它具有以火药燃气为能源的枪机,可以自动连续装弹、发射、退壳,有很强的战斗力。中国在1888年开始试制,1914年仿制德国1899年式,1933年又改进制造出一批新式的民二四式马克沁重机枪。这挺机枪就属于这一类型。它由枪身(包括身管与枪机)和三角枪架两部分构成。那个粗大的用黄铜制成的注水散热管,格外显眼。它全长超过1米,全重近50千克。口径7.9毫米,尖头弹初速870米/秒,重尖弹初速770米/秒,尖头弹表尺射程2500米,重尖弹表尺射程3500米,理论射速600发/分。 1938年初,中国共产党领导的山东人民抗日救国军第3军第2路军一部,攻克日伪军盘据的山东胶东蓬莱城,在搜查原直系军阀吴佩孚的老家吴家大楼时,从地下室一口棺材里发现了这挺马克沁重机枪。同年10月,该部队携带它在山东平度大青阳一带,阻击日伪军进攻。战士们用这挺机枪,向发起冲锋的日伪军猛烈扫射,打得敌人抱头鼠窜,击退其3次猖狂进攻,毙伤敌200余人。部队从早晨一直战斗至傍晚,才安全撤离。大家因其枪身呈黄色,威力又很大,便给它起了个"老黄牛"的名字。以后,这支部队被编入八路军序列。 1939年3月,八路军山东纵队第5支队一部,带着这挺马克沁重机枪参加了攻打招远伪军的作战。八路军不仅用它在罗山、石板丁家、马家沟一带伏击了伪军胡大樵团,又用它掩护突击队袭入招远城内,击溃伪军刘黑七部,还用它阻击了由黄县来援的日伪军。至八路军主动撤出战斗时,共毙伤日伪军1000余人,缴获近300支枪。1941年3月,该部队又带着这挺重机枪,参加了反击国民党军顽固派的胶东战役。在海阳、莱阳地区的大榆山,击退了国民党军4000余人的两次进犯,毙伤大批敌人。1945年9月,八路军山东军区第6师及第5师一部在山东平度,向守城伪军"华北绥靖军"第8集团军王铁相部、伪"山东国民自卫军"第1集团军第12师张松山部和李德元部,发起进攻。八路军部队仍带着这挺机枪参加作战,给敌人沉重打击。至克城之时,共毙伤伪军700余人,俘虏5000余人,缴获迫击炮6门、机枪90余挺、步枪400余支、战马150余匹,取得重大胜利。 这挺不同寻常的马克沁重机枪——"老黄牛",跟随部队转战祖国各地,参加战斗百余次,消灭了无数的敌人,为中国人民的解放事业立下了不朽的功勋。人们对它产生了深厚的感情。20世纪50年代末,它被送到中国人民革命军事博物馆,成为进行革命传统教育的有力证物。

Appreciation of Cultural Relics
“Merit”: The First Tank in the PLA’s Armored Force

  Gao Ke and his fellow comrades in the Northeast Democratic Legion found this Japanese-made Type 97 medium tank in No. 918 Factory (originally the repair factory of tanks under Japan’s Kwantung Army) in Shenyang in November 1945. Gao Ke, Sun San and some others broke through Kuomintang’s barriers and drove this tank to the Northeast Artillery Command. Afterwards, the Northeast Tank Brigade was established, and it became the first tank in the PLA’s armored force. It played an important role in the battles of suppressing bandits at the Suifen River area and in the three battles fought south to the Songhua River. The tankmen called lovingly the tank “Old Man”, for its long service and old parts. The Northeast Tank Brigade participated in a large-scale attack against the heavily fortified positions for the first time when the PLA tried to seize Shenyang in the Liaoshen Campaign in 1948. “Old Man” and other three tanks gave cover for the infantry who tried to break through Kuomintang’s fortifications in the old town of Shenyang. In the battle, the other three were attacked and fell into the river, thus they couldn’t continue to fight. The “Old Man” then rushed into the enemy’s position alone, and got hit five times. Dong Fulai, the tankman climbed out of the tank in the fierce gunfires and repaired the machine before driving on. The tankmen eliminated with tank guns the enemy’s firing points, removing the barriers for the infantry. The “Old Man” finally rushed to the Kuomintang Command in Shenyang. Under its fierce fires, the Kuomintang army waved the white flag. After the war, the command and political department of the Fourth Field Army named this tank “Merit” and the tank team was awarded with Third-class Collective Award of Merit. The tankman Dong Fulai and the machine gunner Wu Peilong were awarded with the First-class Award of Merit.

  Upon the victory of the Liaoshen Campaing, the “Merit” went southwards with the Fourth Field Army and took part in the Pingjin Campaign. It won glory again in the Battle of Tianjin. Afterwards, the tank and the war vehicle regiment it belonged to were on the ceremony for celebrating the PLA’s entry into Beiping (today’s Beijing) and the military review held in the Western Garden Airport.

  The “Merit” also drove as the leading vehicle of the ceremonial parade on the founding ceremony for the People’s Republic of China and accepted inspection by Party and state leaders.