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一挺被称为"老黄牛"的马克沁重机枪

这是一挺在抗日战争时期,由山东抗日武装在蓬莱缴获并历经战火、屡建战功的老式的马克沁重机枪。它有一个"老黄牛"的美名。 马克沁重机枪,是英籍美国人H·S·Maxim(马克沁)于1883年发明的。它具有以火药燃气为能源的枪机,可以自动连续装弹、发射、退壳,有很强的战斗力。中国在1888年开始试制,1914年仿制德国1899年式,1933年又改进制造出一批新式的民二四式马克沁重机枪。这挺机枪就属于这一类型。它由枪身(包括身管与枪机)和三角枪架两部分构成。那个粗大的用黄铜制成的注水散热管,格外显眼。它全长超过1米,全重近50千克。口径7.9毫米,尖头弹初速870米/秒,重尖弹初速770米/秒,尖头弹表尺射程2500米,重尖弹表尺射程3500米,理论射速600发/分。 1938年初,中国共产党领导的山东人民抗日救国军第3军第2路军一部,攻克日伪军盘据的山东胶东蓬莱城,在搜查原直系军阀吴佩孚的老家吴家大楼时,从地下室一口棺材里发现了这挺马克沁重机枪。同年10月,该部队携带它在山东平度大青阳一带,阻击日伪军进攻。战士们用这挺机枪,向发起冲锋的日伪军猛烈扫射,打得敌人抱头鼠窜,击退其3次猖狂进攻,毙伤敌200余人。部队从早晨一直战斗至傍晚,才安全撤离。大家因其枪身呈黄色,威力又很大,便给它起了个"老黄牛"的名字。以后,这支部队被编入八路军序列。 1939年3月,八路军山东纵队第5支队一部,带着这挺马克沁重机枪参加了攻打招远伪军的作战。八路军不仅用它在罗山、石板丁家、马家沟一带伏击了伪军胡大樵团,又用它掩护突击队袭入招远城内,击溃伪军刘黑七部,还用它阻击了由黄县来援的日伪军。至八路军主动撤出战斗时,共毙伤日伪军1000余人,缴获近300支枪。1941年3月,该部队又带着这挺重机枪,参加了反击国民党军顽固派的胶东战役。在海阳、莱阳地区的大榆山,击退了国民党军4000余人的两次进犯,毙伤大批敌人。1945年9月,八路军山东军区第6师及第5师一部在山东平度,向守城伪军"华北绥靖军"第8集团军王铁相部、伪"山东国民自卫军"第1集团军第12师张松山部和李德元部,发起进攻。八路军部队仍带着这挺机枪参加作战,给敌人沉重打击。至克城之时,共毙伤伪军700余人,俘虏5000余人,缴获迫击炮6门、机枪90余挺、步枪400余支、战马150余匹,取得重大胜利。 这挺不同寻常的马克沁重机枪——"老黄牛",跟随部队转战祖国各地,参加战斗百余次,消灭了无数的敌人,为中国人民的解放事业立下了不朽的功勋。人们对它产生了深厚的感情。20世纪50年代末,它被送到中国人民革命军事博物馆,成为进行革命传统教育的有力证物。

Appreciation of Cultural Relics
The Seal of the Central Revolutionary Military Committee: Symbol of the Highest Authority of the Red Army

  The seal of “the Revolutionary Military Committee of the People’s Committee of the Executive Committee of the Chinese Soviet Republic” is made of silver and measures 9.5 centimeters in diameter. There are three circles of figures on it. The upper semicircle of the outer layer reads “the People’s Committee of the Executive Committee of the Chinese Soviet Republic”, with a star on either end of the semicircle, and the lower semicircle reads “the Revolutionary Military Committee”. In the center of the seal there is a globe with a sickle and an axe. Between the outer layer and the central icon there goes a circle of ears of wheat, with a star in the middle. The whole design implies: the Central Revolutionary Military Committee was an integral part of the central government of the CPC-led Chinese Soviet Republic. It was the highest authority of the Red Army.

  The interim central government of the Chinese Soviet Republic was announced to be founded at the First National Congress of the Chinese Soviet Republic held in Ruijin, Jiangxi, on 7 November 1931. On the congress, the delegates discussed and passed the Outline of the Constitution of the Chinese Soviet Republic and the Labor Law of the Chinese Soviet Republic, and proposed the land law draft and the draft resolution on the Red Army issues. According to the congress’s decision and the Central Executive Committee’s order, the Central Revolutionary Military Committee of the Chinese Soviet Republic was officially established on 25 November, with 15 members including Zhu De and Peng Dehuai. Zhu De took office as the chairman and Wang Jiaxiang and Peng Dehuai as the vice chairmen. The military leading organ of the CPC and the Chinese Soviet government, the Central Revolutionary Military Committee was in charge of the organization, provisions, education and training issues of the Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army in revolutionary bases, and commanded the military operations of the Red Army.

  With the establishment of the Central Revolutionary Military Committee, the seal of “the Revolutionary Military Committee of the People’s Committee of the Executive Committee of the Chinese Soviet Republic” was put into immediate use. It witnessed every battle fought by the Red Army against the KMT’s encirclements. The staff of the Operation Office of the Red Army Command in charge of the seal always took the utmost care of the seal, considering it as precious as their own lives. On the Long March in particular, the seal keeper put the seal in the innermost pocket when the Kuomintang army tried every means to besiege, pursue, obstruct and intercept the Red Army, so that the seal was always in perfect safety and available for immediate use. The seal fulfilled its historical mission in August 1937 when China and the CPC-led army entered a new stage in history.

  When the Military Museum was under construction in 1959, the seal was donated to the museum, upon the approval of Deng Xiaoping, then Secretary-General of the CPC Central Committee.