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一挺被称为"老黄牛"的马克沁重机枪

这是一挺在抗日战争时期,由山东抗日武装在蓬莱缴获并历经战火、屡建战功的老式的马克沁重机枪。它有一个"老黄牛"的美名。 马克沁重机枪,是英籍美国人H·S·Maxim(马克沁)于1883年发明的。它具有以火药燃气为能源的枪机,可以自动连续装弹、发射、退壳,有很强的战斗力。中国在1888年开始试制,1914年仿制德国1899年式,1933年又改进制造出一批新式的民二四式马克沁重机枪。这挺机枪就属于这一类型。它由枪身(包括身管与枪机)和三角枪架两部分构成。那个粗大的用黄铜制成的注水散热管,格外显眼。它全长超过1米,全重近50千克。口径7.9毫米,尖头弹初速870米/秒,重尖弹初速770米/秒,尖头弹表尺射程2500米,重尖弹表尺射程3500米,理论射速600发/分。 1938年初,中国共产党领导的山东人民抗日救国军第3军第2路军一部,攻克日伪军盘据的山东胶东蓬莱城,在搜查原直系军阀吴佩孚的老家吴家大楼时,从地下室一口棺材里发现了这挺马克沁重机枪。同年10月,该部队携带它在山东平度大青阳一带,阻击日伪军进攻。战士们用这挺机枪,向发起冲锋的日伪军猛烈扫射,打得敌人抱头鼠窜,击退其3次猖狂进攻,毙伤敌200余人。部队从早晨一直战斗至傍晚,才安全撤离。大家因其枪身呈黄色,威力又很大,便给它起了个"老黄牛"的名字。以后,这支部队被编入八路军序列。 1939年3月,八路军山东纵队第5支队一部,带着这挺马克沁重机枪参加了攻打招远伪军的作战。八路军不仅用它在罗山、石板丁家、马家沟一带伏击了伪军胡大樵团,又用它掩护突击队袭入招远城内,击溃伪军刘黑七部,还用它阻击了由黄县来援的日伪军。至八路军主动撤出战斗时,共毙伤日伪军1000余人,缴获近300支枪。1941年3月,该部队又带着这挺重机枪,参加了反击国民党军顽固派的胶东战役。在海阳、莱阳地区的大榆山,击退了国民党军4000余人的两次进犯,毙伤大批敌人。1945年9月,八路军山东军区第6师及第5师一部在山东平度,向守城伪军"华北绥靖军"第8集团军王铁相部、伪"山东国民自卫军"第1集团军第12师张松山部和李德元部,发起进攻。八路军部队仍带着这挺机枪参加作战,给敌人沉重打击。至克城之时,共毙伤伪军700余人,俘虏5000余人,缴获迫击炮6门、机枪90余挺、步枪400余支、战马150余匹,取得重大胜利。 这挺不同寻常的马克沁重机枪——"老黄牛",跟随部队转战祖国各地,参加战斗百余次,消灭了无数的敌人,为中国人民的解放事业立下了不朽的功勋。人们对它产生了深厚的感情。20世纪50年代末,它被送到中国人民革命军事博物馆,成为进行革命传统教育的有力证物。

Appreciation of Cultural Relics
The Pistol used by Zhu De in Nanchang Uprising

  The German-made 7.63mm Mauser pistol had a serial number of 592032, with a capacity of 10 bullets. On the pistol body there are inscriptions of “In memory of Nanchang Uprising” and “Zhu De’s Pistol”.

  With the Great Revolution (1924-1927) falling to pieces, the CPC Central Committee decided in July 1927 to stage Nanchang Uprising and the Autumn Harvest Uprising in Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong and Jiangxi provinces. A front committee was established, with Zhou Enlai as the secretary, to lead Nanchang Uprising. Zhu De was ordered to be among the first batch of people to return to Nanchang from Wuhan, to prepare for the uprising, as he was familiar with the situation in Jiangxi. Zhu carried this pistol with him back at that time.

  Back to Nanchang, Zhu De managed to win over some officers garrisoned in Nanchang. He also found out the military deployment in and around Nanchang through his connections and drew a map of Nanchang, marked with military points. Zhu De made a detailed report to Zhou Enlai about the situation in Nanchang, when Zhou arrived in the city in secret and lived in Zhu’s apartment.

  On the eve of the uprising, Zhu De “feted” in Jiabin Hotel two regiment commanders of the troops garrisoned in Nanchang, as planned. After the dinner, Zhu invited the two officers to play mah-jong, trying to win more time for the uprising troops. A little past nine, however, an adjutant came to report: Upon the tip-off from the deputy commander of a battalion under He Long’s command, the Communits were staging an uprising. The two regiment commanders left upon hearing the news. Zhu De left immediately, too, to inform He Long of the informer and his tip-off to the enemy. The front committee then decided to start the uprising two hours ahead of time. An insurrectionary soldier had a red tie and a white towel on the left arm. Tying a red ribbon on his pistol, Zhu De headed for the station of his Officers Training Corps of the Third Army of the National Revolutionary Army.

  In the small hours of the morning of 1 August, the CPC-led army fired in Nanchang the first shot of the armed struggle against the KMT reactionaries. According to the deployment by the front committee, Zhu De led his Officers Training Corps to rush to fight the enemy around the station, with his pistol in hand. After hours’ fierce battle, the insurrectionary army accomplished the preset tasks and took Nanchang. Later, the insurrectionary army got reorganized. The reorganized army continued to adopt the designation of the Second Front Army of the National Revolutionary Army and was composed of three armies. Initially Deputy Commander of the Ninth Army, Zhu De was soon promoted to be Commander of the Ninth Army. Nanchang Uprising opened a new page in the CPC’s history, and 1 August has since then been the Army Day.