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一挺被称为"老黄牛"的马克沁重机枪

这是一挺在抗日战争时期,由山东抗日武装在蓬莱缴获并历经战火、屡建战功的老式的马克沁重机枪。它有一个"老黄牛"的美名。 马克沁重机枪,是英籍美国人H·S·Maxim(马克沁)于1883年发明的。它具有以火药燃气为能源的枪机,可以自动连续装弹、发射、退壳,有很强的战斗力。中国在1888年开始试制,1914年仿制德国1899年式,1933年又改进制造出一批新式的民二四式马克沁重机枪。这挺机枪就属于这一类型。它由枪身(包括身管与枪机)和三角枪架两部分构成。那个粗大的用黄铜制成的注水散热管,格外显眼。它全长超过1米,全重近50千克。口径7.9毫米,尖头弹初速870米/秒,重尖弹初速770米/秒,尖头弹表尺射程2500米,重尖弹表尺射程3500米,理论射速600发/分。 1938年初,中国共产党领导的山东人民抗日救国军第3军第2路军一部,攻克日伪军盘据的山东胶东蓬莱城,在搜查原直系军阀吴佩孚的老家吴家大楼时,从地下室一口棺材里发现了这挺马克沁重机枪。同年10月,该部队携带它在山东平度大青阳一带,阻击日伪军进攻。战士们用这挺机枪,向发起冲锋的日伪军猛烈扫射,打得敌人抱头鼠窜,击退其3次猖狂进攻,毙伤敌200余人。部队从早晨一直战斗至傍晚,才安全撤离。大家因其枪身呈黄色,威力又很大,便给它起了个"老黄牛"的名字。以后,这支部队被编入八路军序列。 1939年3月,八路军山东纵队第5支队一部,带着这挺马克沁重机枪参加了攻打招远伪军的作战。八路军不仅用它在罗山、石板丁家、马家沟一带伏击了伪军胡大樵团,又用它掩护突击队袭入招远城内,击溃伪军刘黑七部,还用它阻击了由黄县来援的日伪军。至八路军主动撤出战斗时,共毙伤日伪军1000余人,缴获近300支枪。1941年3月,该部队又带着这挺重机枪,参加了反击国民党军顽固派的胶东战役。在海阳、莱阳地区的大榆山,击退了国民党军4000余人的两次进犯,毙伤大批敌人。1945年9月,八路军山东军区第6师及第5师一部在山东平度,向守城伪军"华北绥靖军"第8集团军王铁相部、伪"山东国民自卫军"第1集团军第12师张松山部和李德元部,发起进攻。八路军部队仍带着这挺机枪参加作战,给敌人沉重打击。至克城之时,共毙伤伪军700余人,俘虏5000余人,缴获迫击炮6门、机枪90余挺、步枪400余支、战马150余匹,取得重大胜利。 这挺不同寻常的马克沁重机枪——"老黄牛",跟随部队转战祖国各地,参加战斗百余次,消灭了无数的敌人,为中国人民的解放事业立下了不朽的功勋。人们对它产生了深厚的感情。20世纪50年代末,它被送到中国人民革命军事博物馆,成为进行革命传统教育的有力证物。

Exhibition Hall of the Agrarian Revolutionary War

  Located in the east part of the first floor of the exhibition building, the Exhibition Hall of the Agrarian Revolutionary War (August 1927-July 1937) focuses on the history of the revolutionary war launched by the CPC-led Chinese Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army and the Chinese people to fight against Kuomintang, abolish the feudal land system and establish a democratic government of workers and peasants. The Exhibition of the Agrarian Revolutionary War was removed in May 2012 when the Museum’s reinforcement and renovation project began.

  

 

  This exhibition highlights the glorious history of the Chinese Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Army (1928-1937), and how the troops grew into a new fearless and bold army of the people, under the leadership of the CPC. It focuses on how the CPC with Mao Zedong at the core of leadership integrated Marxism into China’s specific conditions and led the people’s army to explore a road of revolution in the country by establishing the principles of army building and identifying the military strategies and tactics of the people’s war suitable for China’s revolution. The exhibition also reveals that China and its people could be saved from impending dangers only through the armed struggle led by the Communist Party of China.

  

 

  In the precious photographs of those days, one may admire the images of Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Zhu De and other founding fathers of New China, of heroes who sacrificed their lives for the liberation of the country, of the poorly-equipped Red Army in their early days with plenty of fight, of tired Red Army soldiers on the Long March, and of those brave in battles at Jinggangshan, Gutian, Ruijin, Chishui River, Wuqi Town and Wayaobao.

 

  The cultural relics on display were like creators, participants and witnesses of that period of history. Each of them, be it a military uniform, a gun, a cannon, a pair of binoculars, a piece of medical equipment, a communication device, a seal, a copy of rules, a proclamation or an operation plan, played a special role in the development of the people’s army and had a moving story to tell. There is the officer’s sword that was in the hand of a Communist Party member in the Northern Expedition (1926-1927), the hide puttees, pistols and CPC Member Cards which witnessed the high spirits of the leaders and the Red Army commanders in their glorious fighting days, and the embroidered curtains and postal parcels that showed the close relationship between the Red Army and the people. Moreover, the notes and cloth wrappers were witnesses of the disciplines of the Red Army; and the waterproof cloth, mess savings and silver coins given by a leader to his subordinates reflected the friendship among the Red Army officers and the rank and file. The earliest military uniform and the first telegraph receiver of the Red Army told about the development of the army. The last words and bloodstained remains of martyrs killed in the enemy’s prisons resounded the heroes’ bravery and righteousness. The medals and badges record the forefathers’ illustrious military exploits. The oil lamps and cannons made of lichee wood shone the radiance of hard struggle of the Red Army. The iron chain from the Luding Bridge witnessed the Red Army’s heroic bravery. The mountain gun was the only one of its kind that had been carried along the way of the Long March to Shaanbei. The grip-soles played a significant role when the Red Army climbed the snow-capped mountains in the Long March. The war trophies were evidence of the victories in numerous battles. The blankets witnessed the revolutionaries’ deep friendship.

  Paintings and sculptures, such as August 1 Nanchang Uprising (1927), Force-reunion on the Jinggangshan Mountain,  A Single Spark Can Start a Prairie Fire, The Red Army’s Triumph over the Encirclement, A Legendary Capture of the Luding Bridge, Reunion of the Three Main Forces, The Red Army Crossing the Grassy Marshlands, The Hard Times and A Blood-smearing Oath of Alliance, recapture the important historical scenes during the Agrarian Revolutionary War and impress visitors with artistic beauty. These are classical works in New China’s art history.