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一挺被称为"老黄牛"的马克沁重机枪

这是一挺在抗日战争时期,由山东抗日武装在蓬莱缴获并历经战火、屡建战功的老式的马克沁重机枪。它有一个"老黄牛"的美名。 马克沁重机枪,是英籍美国人H·S·Maxim(马克沁)于1883年发明的。它具有以火药燃气为能源的枪机,可以自动连续装弹、发射、退壳,有很强的战斗力。中国在1888年开始试制,1914年仿制德国1899年式,1933年又改进制造出一批新式的民二四式马克沁重机枪。这挺机枪就属于这一类型。它由枪身(包括身管与枪机)和三角枪架两部分构成。那个粗大的用黄铜制成的注水散热管,格外显眼。它全长超过1米,全重近50千克。口径7.9毫米,尖头弹初速870米/秒,重尖弹初速770米/秒,尖头弹表尺射程2500米,重尖弹表尺射程3500米,理论射速600发/分。 1938年初,中国共产党领导的山东人民抗日救国军第3军第2路军一部,攻克日伪军盘据的山东胶东蓬莱城,在搜查原直系军阀吴佩孚的老家吴家大楼时,从地下室一口棺材里发现了这挺马克沁重机枪。同年10月,该部队携带它在山东平度大青阳一带,阻击日伪军进攻。战士们用这挺机枪,向发起冲锋的日伪军猛烈扫射,打得敌人抱头鼠窜,击退其3次猖狂进攻,毙伤敌200余人。部队从早晨一直战斗至傍晚,才安全撤离。大家因其枪身呈黄色,威力又很大,便给它起了个"老黄牛"的名字。以后,这支部队被编入八路军序列。 1939年3月,八路军山东纵队第5支队一部,带着这挺马克沁重机枪参加了攻打招远伪军的作战。八路军不仅用它在罗山、石板丁家、马家沟一带伏击了伪军胡大樵团,又用它掩护突击队袭入招远城内,击溃伪军刘黑七部,还用它阻击了由黄县来援的日伪军。至八路军主动撤出战斗时,共毙伤日伪军1000余人,缴获近300支枪。1941年3月,该部队又带着这挺重机枪,参加了反击国民党军顽固派的胶东战役。在海阳、莱阳地区的大榆山,击退了国民党军4000余人的两次进犯,毙伤大批敌人。1945年9月,八路军山东军区第6师及第5师一部在山东平度,向守城伪军"华北绥靖军"第8集团军王铁相部、伪"山东国民自卫军"第1集团军第12师张松山部和李德元部,发起进攻。八路军部队仍带着这挺机枪参加作战,给敌人沉重打击。至克城之时,共毙伤伪军700余人,俘虏5000余人,缴获迫击炮6门、机枪90余挺、步枪400余支、战马150余匹,取得重大胜利。 这挺不同寻常的马克沁重机枪——"老黄牛",跟随部队转战祖国各地,参加战斗百余次,消灭了无数的敌人,为中国人民的解放事业立下了不朽的功勋。人们对它产生了深厚的感情。20世纪50年代末,它被送到中国人民革命军事博物馆,成为进行革命传统教育的有力证物。

Exhibition Hall of Ancient Warfare

  First built in 1984, the Exhibition of Ancient Warfare began to be open to the public in 1988. And it was renovated in 1998 and reopened in 1999. Located in the west part of the third floor of the exhibition building, the exhibition occupies an area of 3,300 square meters and houses over 1,600 exhibits, including cultural relics, photographs, models, charts and tables, paintings and sculptures. The Exhibition of Ancient Warfare was removed in May 2012 when the Museum’s reinforcement and renovation project began.

  

  

 

  Following the history of wars, the Exhibition of Ancient Warfare presents weaponry, military systems, armies and military thoughts against different political and economic backgrounds in ancient China. The exhibition is arranged into six parts along the timeline of China’s history, namely the pre-Qin era (before 221BC); Qin (221BC-206BC) and Han dynasties (206BC-220AD); the period of Three Kingdoms (220-280), Jin Dynasty (265-420) and Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-589); Sui (581-618) and Tang (618-907) and Five Dynasties (907-960); Song (960-1279), Liao (907-1125), Xia (1038-1227), Jin (1115-1234) and Yuan (1206-1368) dynasties; as well as Ming (1368-11644) and Qing (1616-1911) dynasties. The exhibition focuses on important wars, famous battles and preeminent military strategists, commanders and generals in ancient China; the bronze weaponry of Xia (c. 2100BC-c. 1600BC), Shang (c. 1600BC-c. 1100BC) and Western Zhou (c. 1100BC-c. 771BC) dynasties, of the Spring and Autumn Period (770BC-476BC) and of the Warring States Period (475BC-221BC) that holds a significant place in the world’s military history; as well as firearms and well-known literature on military theories such as The Art of War since Tang and Song dynasties.

  

  

 

  

  

  In the Exhibition of Ancient Warfare there are many precious military relics, including the halberd inscribed with “xue shi” of the Western Zhou Dynasty unearthed in Shandong Province, the bamboo bow of the Spring and Autumn Period unearthed in Hunan Province, the intact dagger-axe of Chu State during the Warring States Period unearthed in Anhui Province, the terracotta warriors of the Qin Dynasty unearthed in Shaanxi Province, warrior figures of the Western Han Dynasty (206BC-25AD) unearthed in Jiangsu Province, and the brass blunderbuss inscribed with “Zhizheng Xinmao” of the Yuan Dynasty unearthed in Jilin Province. The exhibition also represents the military history of ancient China with models, wax figures and other artworks such as paintings and sculptures. The mural titled History of Warfare of China on the wall of the circular-shaped lobby measures five meters high and 52 meters long. With concise yet vivid brush strokes and scenes, it shows the features of chariot warfare, water warfare, horse warfare and offensive and defensive battles. In addition, the exhibition represents the characteristics and development of weaponry, armies and warfare in ancient China with models, such as the large reconstructed model of the four-horse chariot with three soldiers, the man-made spectacle recapturing the Battles at Luoyang and Hulao and representing the bravery of the Tang cavalries, and the models showing city defense and weaponry of the Song Dynasty as well as the magnificent displays of firearms and huge warship models.