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一挺被称为"老黄牛"的马克沁重机枪

这是一挺在抗日战争时期,由山东抗日武装在蓬莱缴获并历经战火、屡建战功的老式的马克沁重机枪。它有一个"老黄牛"的美名。 马克沁重机枪,是英籍美国人H·S·Maxim(马克沁)于1883年发明的。它具有以火药燃气为能源的枪机,可以自动连续装弹、发射、退壳,有很强的战斗力。中国在1888年开始试制,1914年仿制德国1899年式,1933年又改进制造出一批新式的民二四式马克沁重机枪。这挺机枪就属于这一类型。它由枪身(包括身管与枪机)和三角枪架两部分构成。那个粗大的用黄铜制成的注水散热管,格外显眼。它全长超过1米,全重近50千克。口径7.9毫米,尖头弹初速870米/秒,重尖弹初速770米/秒,尖头弹表尺射程2500米,重尖弹表尺射程3500米,理论射速600发/分。 1938年初,中国共产党领导的山东人民抗日救国军第3军第2路军一部,攻克日伪军盘据的山东胶东蓬莱城,在搜查原直系军阀吴佩孚的老家吴家大楼时,从地下室一口棺材里发现了这挺马克沁重机枪。同年10月,该部队携带它在山东平度大青阳一带,阻击日伪军进攻。战士们用这挺机枪,向发起冲锋的日伪军猛烈扫射,打得敌人抱头鼠窜,击退其3次猖狂进攻,毙伤敌200余人。部队从早晨一直战斗至傍晚,才安全撤离。大家因其枪身呈黄色,威力又很大,便给它起了个"老黄牛"的名字。以后,这支部队被编入八路军序列。 1939年3月,八路军山东纵队第5支队一部,带着这挺马克沁重机枪参加了攻打招远伪军的作战。八路军不仅用它在罗山、石板丁家、马家沟一带伏击了伪军胡大樵团,又用它掩护突击队袭入招远城内,击溃伪军刘黑七部,还用它阻击了由黄县来援的日伪军。至八路军主动撤出战斗时,共毙伤日伪军1000余人,缴获近300支枪。1941年3月,该部队又带着这挺重机枪,参加了反击国民党军顽固派的胶东战役。在海阳、莱阳地区的大榆山,击退了国民党军4000余人的两次进犯,毙伤大批敌人。1945年9月,八路军山东军区第6师及第5师一部在山东平度,向守城伪军"华北绥靖军"第8集团军王铁相部、伪"山东国民自卫军"第1集团军第12师张松山部和李德元部,发起进攻。八路军部队仍带着这挺机枪参加作战,给敌人沉重打击。至克城之时,共毙伤伪军700余人,俘虏5000余人,缴获迫击炮6门、机枪90余挺、步枪400余支、战马150余匹,取得重大胜利。 这挺不同寻常的马克沁重机枪——"老黄牛",跟随部队转战祖国各地,参加战斗百余次,消灭了无数的敌人,为中国人民的解放事业立下了不朽的功勋。人们对它产生了深厚的感情。20世纪50年代末,它被送到中国人民革命军事博物馆,成为进行革命传统教育的有力证物。

Exhibition Hall of the War of Liberation of China

  Located in the east part of the second floor of the exhibition building, the Exhibition of the War of Liberation of China presents the War of Liberation of China launched by the Chinese people and the PLA under the leadership of the CPC between 1945 and 1949 on the Kuomintang regime. The exhibition recaptures how the Chinese people and the PLA overthrew the Kuomintang rule, won the New-democratic Revolution and founded the People’s Republic of China. The Exhibition of the War of Liberation of China was removed in May 2012 when the reinforcement and renovation project of the building began.

  

 

  The exhibition is composed of five parts, namely “Striving for Peace and Democracy and Preparing for a Civil War”, “Strategic Defense”, “Strategic Offensive”, “Decisive Strategic Engagement” and “Strategic Pursuit”. The exhibition illustrates the superb military command of Mao Zedong and other revolutionary leaders, and recaptures how the PLA beat off the attacks launched by the Kuomintang army and founded the People’s Republic of China by fighting in the Dabie Mountains and in central China, launching decisive Liaoshen, Huaihai and Pingjin campaigns and crossing the Yangtze River. Here, one can also admire the heroic sacrifices of the revolutionaries and martyrs, as well as the people’s strong support for the revolution. There are also theme displays which represent the PLA’s self-development, the fight in the enemy-occupied areas and the army-people relations during the War of Liberation of China. The exhibition not only illustrates the military history, but also demonstrates the military culture of the period.

  

 

  

 

  There are over 1,000 cultural relics and more than 300 photographs in this exhibition. All of them were the witnesses to the War of Liberation, and each told an unordinary and moving story. One sees in these exhibits the battlefields thick with fumes of gunpowder and the extremely hard and bitter times during the war. The Exhibition of the War of Liberation of China features a harmonious combination of exhibits and environment by integrating such artistic forms as sculptures, paintings and man-made spectacles with modern sound, lighting and digital technologies. The large set of sculptures “Liberation of China” in the lobby fully demonstrates the PLA’s brave and heroic deeds in liberating China. The large man-made spectacle “Superb Command” is a set of lifelike wax figures of the five CPC secretaries, namely Mao Zedong, Zhu De, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi and Ren Bishi. The circular wall painting “The Battle of Jinzhou” looks magnificent. The oil paintings like On the Eve of a Decisive Battle, Going to Shaanbei and Attacking and Capturing the Presidential Palace painted by renowned Chinese painters Gao Hong, He Kongde and Chen Yifei recapture the glorious history of the War of Liberation in an artistic manner. On the display counter in the center there are US-made weapons, communication devices and other military objects seized by the PLA during the war. These articles witnessed how the PLA who had only millet and rifles defeated the Kuomintang army well equipped with US weapons.