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一挺被称为"老黄牛"的马克沁重机枪

这是一挺在抗日战争时期,由山东抗日武装在蓬莱缴获并历经战火、屡建战功的老式的马克沁重机枪。它有一个"老黄牛"的美名。 马克沁重机枪,是英籍美国人H·S·Maxim(马克沁)于1883年发明的。它具有以火药燃气为能源的枪机,可以自动连续装弹、发射、退壳,有很强的战斗力。中国在1888年开始试制,1914年仿制德国1899年式,1933年又改进制造出一批新式的民二四式马克沁重机枪。这挺机枪就属于这一类型。它由枪身(包括身管与枪机)和三角枪架两部分构成。那个粗大的用黄铜制成的注水散热管,格外显眼。它全长超过1米,全重近50千克。口径7.9毫米,尖头弹初速870米/秒,重尖弹初速770米/秒,尖头弹表尺射程2500米,重尖弹表尺射程3500米,理论射速600发/分。 1938年初,中国共产党领导的山东人民抗日救国军第3军第2路军一部,攻克日伪军盘据的山东胶东蓬莱城,在搜查原直系军阀吴佩孚的老家吴家大楼时,从地下室一口棺材里发现了这挺马克沁重机枪。同年10月,该部队携带它在山东平度大青阳一带,阻击日伪军进攻。战士们用这挺机枪,向发起冲锋的日伪军猛烈扫射,打得敌人抱头鼠窜,击退其3次猖狂进攻,毙伤敌200余人。部队从早晨一直战斗至傍晚,才安全撤离。大家因其枪身呈黄色,威力又很大,便给它起了个"老黄牛"的名字。以后,这支部队被编入八路军序列。 1939年3月,八路军山东纵队第5支队一部,带着这挺马克沁重机枪参加了攻打招远伪军的作战。八路军不仅用它在罗山、石板丁家、马家沟一带伏击了伪军胡大樵团,又用它掩护突击队袭入招远城内,击溃伪军刘黑七部,还用它阻击了由黄县来援的日伪军。至八路军主动撤出战斗时,共毙伤日伪军1000余人,缴获近300支枪。1941年3月,该部队又带着这挺重机枪,参加了反击国民党军顽固派的胶东战役。在海阳、莱阳地区的大榆山,击退了国民党军4000余人的两次进犯,毙伤大批敌人。1945年9月,八路军山东军区第6师及第5师一部在山东平度,向守城伪军"华北绥靖军"第8集团军王铁相部、伪"山东国民自卫军"第1集团军第12师张松山部和李德元部,发起进攻。八路军部队仍带着这挺机枪参加作战,给敌人沉重打击。至克城之时,共毙伤伪军700余人,俘虏5000余人,缴获迫击炮6门、机枪90余挺、步枪400余支、战马150余匹,取得重大胜利。 这挺不同寻常的马克沁重机枪——"老黄牛",跟随部队转战祖国各地,参加战斗百余次,消灭了无数的敌人,为中国人民的解放事业立下了不朽的功勋。人们对它产生了深厚的感情。20世纪50年代末,它被送到中国人民革命军事博物馆,成为进行革命传统教育的有力证物。

Exhibition Hall of Modern Warfare

  First built in 1984, the Exhibition of Modern Warfare was open to the public in 1988. And it was under renovation and readjustment in 1998 and reopened in 1999. Located in the west part of the fourth floor of the exhibition building, the exhibition occupies an area of 1,300 square meters and houses over 500 exhibits, including cultural relics, photographs, reconstructed models, sand tables, charts and tables, wax figures and man-made spectacles. The Exhibition of Modern Warfare was removed in May 2012 when the Museum’s reinforcement and renovation project began.

  

 

  The Exhibition of Modern Warfare primarily captures the armed struggle of the Chinese people against foreign invasions and domestic oppressions between 1840 and 1919. In the timeline of history, the exhibition is divided into five parts, namely the Opium War (1840-1842),  the War of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1851-1864), the war against the carve-up of China by foreign powers, the revolutionary war overthrowing the Qing regime and the war against the Northern Warlords (1912-1927). In addition to important wars in China’s modern history, the exhibition also features dozens of renowned military figures such as Lin Zexu, as well as modern China’s military industries, the building of an advanced naval force and the military reform launched in the late Qing Dynasty.

  

 

  

 

  In the Exhibition of Modern Warfare there are many precious military relics, including the inscribed cannon used  by troops of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Zuo Zongtang’s seal, Ding Ruchang’s armory and the US-made Gatling guns. The figures in relief in the lobby look magnificent yet solemn, revealing the theme of the Exhibition of Modern Warfare and representing the epitome of modern wars in China, so that visitors may have a panorama of the modern military history in the country. There are also man-made spectacles, reconstructed models, wax figures, paintings and sculptures, such as the large-scale reconstructed spectacles “the Old Summer Palace” and “the Battle on the Yellow Sea” that reveal the barbarities of the Anglo-French Allied Army and recapture the pitched battle fought on the Yellow Sea during the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895. Oil paintings like Anti-British Heroic Activities at Humen,  Lifeblood in Vast Desert and The Triumph in the Battle of Langfang painted by renowned painters Gao Hong, He Kongde and Gao Quan, vividly depict the Chinese people’s brave fights against foreign invasions.